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Thread: Merge for Dummies

  1. #1
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    Merge for Dummies

    Well in attempting my first merge of the Berkeley shows, right off the bat I've run into an issue. I tried to use DBPoweramp to convert the "Bob Terry Composite" flacs to WAV files and got the errors shown below in the failed conversion. I haven't the slightest idea what they mean. But when I used the original Bob Terry (non-composite) source instead, there were no errors. So I guess I'll go with that source for now.

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\13 Voodoo Child (Slight Return).flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\13 Voodoo Child (Slight Return).wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\01 Introduction.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\01 Introduction.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\02 Fire.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\02 Fire.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_SEARCH_FOR_FRAME_SYNC' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\02 Fire.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\03 Johnny B. Goode.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\03 Johnny B. Goode.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\04 Hear My Train A Comin'.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\04 Hear My Train A Comin'.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_SEARCH_FOR_FRAME_SYNC' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\04 Hear My Train A Comin'.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\05 Foxey Lady.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\05 Foxey Lady.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\06 Machine Gun.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\06 Machine Gun.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_SEARCH_FOR_FRAME_SYNC' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\06 Machine Gun.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\07 Freedom.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\07 Freedom.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\08 Red House.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\08 Red House.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_SEARCH_FOR_FRAME_SYNC' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\08 Red House.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\09 Message To Love.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\09 Message To Love.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_READ_FRAME' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\09 Message To Love.flac'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_READ_METADATA' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\09 Message To Love.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\10 Ezy Ryder.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\10 Ezy Ryder.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\11 The Star Spangled Banner.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\11 The Star Spangled Banner.wav'
    Encountered 'FLAC__STREAM_DECODER_SEARCH_FOR_FRAME_SYNC' in FLAC File 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\11 The Star Spangled Banner.flac'

    Error converting to Wave, 'H:\Hendrix Berkeley 70 Terry Composite\Jimi Hendrix - Live at Berkeley [1st Show]\12 Purple Haze.flac' to 'J:\MERGEWORTHY WAVS\Bob Terry Composite\12 Purple Haze.wav'
    Wave Encoder: Error Converting from 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 0 Bits per Sample: 0 Samples Per Second: 0 Bytes Per Second: 1 Block Align: 1 CB Size: 0' to 'Format Tag: 1 Channels: 2 Bits per Sample: 16 Samples Per Second: 44100 Bytes Per Second: 176400 Block Align: 4 CB Size: 0'

  2. #2
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    Re: Merge for Dummies

    Ok so I've started merging the Bob Terry SB for the Berkeley early show with the ATM audience. I'm using Audacity for now. But I also have Cubase. Both of them can use VST plug ins. I looked at Magix, but its a paid program and I don't see that it does anything that Cubase or Audacity can't do. And I certainly didn't any tools specific to making merges like this.

    Right off the bat I can hear that the tape speed seems to vary slightly on the ATM vs the SB. Not that either one of them sounds off pitch but the ATM seems to run a little faster or slower in places and is constantly varying. I can sync up the beginning of a song and it sounds good for a few lines and then loses sync. Not so much that you'd notice by listening to it solo, but put it together with the SB and it soon gets out of sync.

    I'm sure that all of you who have produced merges in the past have run into this issue. What is the preferred way of dealing with it?

    (1) I could slice up the ATM into hundreds of little pieces and try to slide them back and forth on a timeline to keep them sync'd up with the SB. Very time consuming and labor intensive and really messes with the integrity of that track. You certainly wouldn't want to listen to that track by itself after its been sliced and diced.

    (2) Perhaps I could slice up the ATM into fewer pieces and use digital tempo and time stretch VST plug-ins to try and sync them up. Is that how you all do it? Or is there another way?

  3. #3
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    Re: Merge for Dummies

    Found this helpful tutorial on Trader's Den Looks like a pretty daunting process! But I will give it my best shot:

    It's not a beginner's task... here's something to get you started:

    bass sounds best coming from the soundboard, not echoing around the room, so try to get most of the bass from the dry soundboard not from the audience source if at all possible.

    it is very similar to replacing the audio on a DVD, except you blend the two audio sources

    some info here (esp check Author85's post)
    http://www.thetradersden.org/forums/...ad.php?t=37589

    you'll need a smidge of eq to make them sound natural together (don't overdo it)
    http://www.thetradersden.org/forums/...ead.php?t=3514

    and if your primary source isn't running at the correct speed, you will need to do pitch correction... this will also come in handy when stretching/shortening the 2nd souce
    Here's the method I came up with to speed correct shows. I hope I've written
    it clearly enough. If not, flame me. Ask any questions you may have. It is
    a work in progress so I will be updating/clarifying as we go.

    Jim


    Steps to speed correcting using Audacity, EAC, and SHNTool (or equivalent):
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1) Determine speed correction needed for each track. (Details below in section
    "Step 1 Detailed Description")

    2) If the speed correction is not a constant for the entire show, determine
    where you want to cut the sections for each speed. For example, tracks
    1-4 need to be slowed down 3%. Track 5 only needs to be slowed down 1%.
    Listen to the transition between tracks 4 and 5. Is there a tape cut? If
    so, that's where you want to have the transition which changes speed
    correction from -3% to -1%. If not, choose a location with minimal volume.
    Do this for the entire show.

    You can make the process easier if you simply use the existing track
    boundaries as section transitions. This does not always produce the best
    results though. Your choice.

    3) Begin speed correcting sections you determined in Step 2. In Audacity,
    appending WAVs is a little tedious. First open the first track, then open
    the second track in a new window. Select all of the second track (CTRL A)
    and copy (CTRL C). Now go back to the first track, select Edit->
    Move Cursor->To Track End. Then paste (CTRL V). Close the window for the
    second track.

    Repeat this until the current section is complete. If the section boundary
    you determined in Step 2 is not an existing track boundary, you will need
    chop the last track of the current section at this boundary. Open the last
    track of the current section, simply move cursor to the boundary point you
    determined, select Edit->Select->Start To Cursor. Then do (CTRL X). Now
    append the portion you just deleted to the end of the current section. Don't
    close the window containing the remaining portion of the last track of the
    section. It will be the first part of the next section. Finally, once the
    section is build, go to Tools->Change Speed. Enter desired speed change.

    Repeat this procedure for each section. You can keep a window open for each
    completed section or save each. I like to keep the windows open to avoid
    any change of corrupting data through the save and then re open process.

    4) When all the sections are build and speed corrected, it's time to append the
    sections together (see Step 3 above for appending process). Each new
    section that gets appended could have a section transition problem. After
    you append the section, you must zoom in to the transition boundary to make
    sure there is not a discontinuity. This transition point is easy to find
    because the newly appended section will be shaded darker than the rest of
    the WAV. Zoom all the way until you can see the individual samples around
    the section transition point. Look for a smooth waveform at the transition.
    If not smooth, adjust samples around the discontinuity to make it smooth.
    Once zoomed in, there's a tab in the upper left corner of the display to
    change to sample edit mode. Once the signal looks smooth, listen to the
    transition to make sure there is no pop or click. Repeat this for all
    sections.

    5) Once all sections have been appended, save off the complete show or disc.

    6) To cut the new tracks, I use EAC. Using EAC's Process WAV feature, open the
    WAV file of the entire disc or show created. Starting at last track, select
    portion of WAV to be included, move mouse to select all of last track, then
    go to File->Save Selection. Then delete this selected portion of the WAV.
    Repeat this until you have saved off all the tracks and have only the first
    track left of the huge WAV you started with.

    7) Fix SBEs in tracks just cut. Use whatever you want to do this. I use
    SHNTool.

    That's it.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Step 1 Detailed Description
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    First open the track up in Audacity. Listen and try to locate points with
    clear notes. For example, OTHAFA intro outro, STH start, BD or HB riff.
    Select the desired portion of the WAV with the mouse.

    Now go to View->Frequency Spectrum. A new window will come up with the
    frequency spectrum of the selection. For the options on the bottom left side
    of the window, select size 16384, rectangular window, frequency spectrum, and
    logarithmic (log) scale.

    Now maximize this window and you should see discrete spikes. These spikes will
    correspond to tuning note frequencies. A, A#, B, B# etc. The key to
    correcting is to determine where a note spike frequencies should be. Refer
    to the include table below for concert pitch note frequencies. These are
    the frequencies where the spikes should be assuming Zep was tuned to concert
    pitch.

    For example, you see A4 at 455 Hz. From the table you know it should be at
    440 Hz. So the correction needed in percent is calculated by:
    (1 - 455/440) * 100 = -3.4%.
    The general equation is:
    percent correction needed = 1 - (freq observed / freq expected) * 100

    A positive percent means speed up and a negative percent means slow down.

    It is important not to only look at one spike when doing this, look at several
    and get a good average of what the correction needs to be. If a spike
    frequency doesn't make sense, ignore it and look at others, or select a
    different section of the WAV file.

    Another possible gotcha is correcting to the wrong half step. For example,
    you see a spike at 435 Hz. You assume it is A4 so you correct it to 440. It
    is really G#3. So now the correction is a half step high (fast). I do a
    sanity check with other known correct recordings to avoid doing this.

    That's basically it.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Concert Pitch Frequency Table
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -------A----Asharp--------B----------C----Csharp---------D----Dsharp--------E----------F-----Fsharp---------G-----Gsharp

    ------55----58.27---61.735---65.406---69.296---73.416---77.782---82.407---87.307---92.499---97.999---103.83

    ----110---116.54---123.47---130.81---138.59---146.83---155.56---164.81---174.61-------185-------196---207.65

    ----220---233.08---246.94---261.63---277.18---293.66---311.13---329.63---349.23---369.99-------392----415.3

    ----440---466.16---493.88---523.25---554.37---587.33---622.25---659.26---698.46---739.99---783.99---830.61

    ----880---932.33---987.77---1046.5---1108.7---1174.7---1244.5---1318.5---1396.9-----1480------1568---1661.2

    ---1760---1864.7---1975.5-----2093---2217.5---2349.3-----2489------2637---2793.8-----2960------3136---3322.4

    ---3520---3729.3---3951.1-----4186---4434.9---4698.6-----4978------5274---5587.7---5919.9---6271.9---6644.9





    Fixed pitch font version. Copy to text editor and view with font set to Courier.

    +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    | A | Asharp | B | C | Csharp | D | Dsharp | E | F | Fsharp | G | Gsharp |
    +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    | 27.5 | 29.135 | 30.868 | 32.703 | 34.648 | 36.708 | 38.891 | 41.203 | 43.654 | 46.249 | 48.999 | 51.913 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 55 | 58.27 | 61.735 | 65.406 | 69.296 | 73.416 | 77.782 | 82.407 | 87.307 | 92.499 | 97.999 | 103.83 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 110 | 116.54 | 123.47 | 130.81 | 138.59 | 146.83 | 155.56 | 164.81 | 174.61 | 185 | 196 | 207.65 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 220 | 233.08 | 246.94 | 261.63 | 277.18 | 293.66 | 311.13 | 329.63 | 349.23 | 369.99 | 392 | 415.3 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 440 | 466.16 | 493.88 | 523.25 | 554.37 | 587.33 | 622.25 | 659.26 | 698.46 | 739.99 | 783.99 | 830.61 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 880 | 932.33 | 987.77 | 1046.5 | 1108.7 | 1174.7 | 1244.5 | 1318.5 | 1396.9 | 1480 | 1568 | 1661.2 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 1760 | 1864.7 | 1975.5 | 2093 | 2217.5 | 2349.3 | 2489 | 2637 | 2793.8 | 2960 | 3136 | 3322.4 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 3520 | 3729.3 | 3951.1 | 4186 | 4434.9 | 4698.6 | 4978 | 5274 | 5587.7 | 5919.9 | 6271.9 | 6644.9 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 7040 | 7458.6 | 7902.1 | 8372 | 8869.8 | 9397.3 | 9956.1 | 10548 | 11175 | 11840 | 12544 | 13290 |
    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    | 14080 | 14917 | 15804 | 16744 | 17740 | 18795 | 19912 | 21096 | 22351 | 23680 | 25088 | 26580 |
    +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+




    Matlab Code to generate table:

    ratio_per_note = 2^(1/12);
    lowest_A = 440/8;
    current_freq = lowest_A
    for n=1:84
    output_freqz(n) = current_freq;
    current_freq = current_freq * ratio_per_note;
    end

    and of course the usual stuff, work from the two complete sources, not track by track, and be sure to cut on the sector boundaries at the end yada yada

    take your time until its the best you can make it



  4. #4
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    Re: Merge for Dummies

    Just had my first little sweet taste of success! I merged the two different spoken intros! The AUD tape was running 1.63% slower than the SB. Using tutorials on Traders Den and Tapers Section websites I was able to precisely calculate and correct! I'm on my way. I'll try not to bore you all with too many details along the way. It still looks to be a long and painstaking process.

    Aside from the speed corrections issues, I'm still not sure where to place different things in the mix. It doesn't seem right to just put the SB on the left and the audience on the right since they are both stereo sources. I'm thinking of putting the AUD L/R just outside of the SB L/R.

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